Eye conditions can occur at any age. Routine annual eye examinations can help to detect eye disease and early detection can increase treatment success. Our top priority is the care of your eyes, and Dr. Levinson and Dr. DiTota will treat most cases of eye disease.
At Eyecare of CNY, we do Optomap Retinal Exams to obtain a wide field view of the retina. This is a thorough screening that provides a greater view of the back of the eye and assists in detecting eye conditions and diseases. For more information visit our Optos Optomap page.
Common Eye Diseases
There are two types of blepharitis. Seborrheic blepharitis is often part of an overall skin condition of seborrhea, which may also affect the scalp, chest, back and the area behind the ears. The second form of blepharitis, staph blepharitis, is a more severe condition, caused by bacteria, that begins in childhood and may continue through adulthood.
Hormones, nutrition, general physical condition, and even stress may contribute to seborrheic blepharitis. Build-ups of naturally occurring bacteria contribute to staph blepharitis.
Blepharitis could be described as dandruff of the eyelids. Seborrheic blepharitis results in redness of the eyelids, flaking and scaling of eyelashes, and greasy, waxy scales caused by abnormal tear production. Staph blepharitis can cause small ulcers, loss of eyelashes, eyelid scarring, and even red eye.
Careful cleaning of the eyelids can reduce seborrheic blepharitis. Application of hot packs to the eyes for 20 minutes a day can also help. Staph blepharitis may require antibiotic drops and ointments.
Cataracts are a cloudiness that occurs in the lens of the eye. The lens is made mostly of water and protein arranged to let light through. Sometimes the protein clumps, blocking light and making the lens appear cloudy.
A person with cataracts may encounter faded colors, problems with light (such as halos, or headlights that seem too bright), poor night vision, double vision, or multiple vision.
Your eye doctor can detect the presence of cataracts through a thorough eye exam, including a visual acuity test and dilation of the pupils. Treatment is available to prevent or reduce cataracts.
Conjunctivitis, commonly called pink eye, is a redness of the eye. It is often accompanied by a discharge (clear, yellow, or white) and itching in the eye.
Pink eye is most often a viral infection, but may also be caused by bacteria or allergic reaction. The viral pink eye is highly contagious.
Prevention and Treatment
To avoid spreading conjunctivitis, wash your hands often, don't touch the infected area with your hands, don't share wash cloths or towels and avoid using make which may become contaminated. A child with pink eye should be kept from school for a few days. Sometimes an eye doctor will need to prescribe antibiotic eye drops and ointments to remove conjunctivitis.
Diabetic retinopathy is a condition associated with diabetes. High levels of blood sugar may damage tiny blood vessels in your eye. New vessels may form to replace the damaged vessels. The new vessels can burst, resulting in blurred vision or even blindness.
Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include
Risk Factors and Treatment
If you have diabetes, make sure you control your blood sugar level. This will reduce your risk of getting diabetic retinopathy. If you are experiencing some of the symptoms listed above, give us a call. If diagnosed properly, diabetic retinopathy can be treated with laser procedure or a vitrectomy.
Dry Eye Syndrome
If your eyes are constantly itchy or dry you may have dry eye syndrome, which affects 10 million Americans. It is caused by the lack of, or poor quality of, tears. Tears lubricate the outer layer of the eye, called the cornea. If the tears are not composed of proper balance of mucous, water and oil the eye becomes irritated.
Dry eye syndrome leads to a number of symptoms, including itching, irritation, burning, excessive tearing, redness, blurred vision that improves with blinking and discomfort after long periods of watching television, using a computer or reading.
There are many facts that can contribute. These include dry, hot or windy climates, high altitudes, air-conditioned rooms and cigarette smoke. Contact lens wearers, people with drier skin and the elderly are more likely to develop dry eye syndrome. You may also be more at risk if you take certain medications, have a thyroid condition, a vitamin-A deficiency, Parkinsons or Sjorgens disease, or if you are a woman going through menopause.
Glaucoma is a very common eye disorder affecting millions of Americans. It is caused by too much pressure on the inside of the eye. Fluid in your eyes helps to nourish and cleanse the inside of your eyes by constantly flowing in and out. When the fluid is prevented from flowing out, the intraocular pressure builds and damages the optic nerve. This causes a gradual loss in vision.
Those suffering from open-angle glaucoma experience a type of tunnel vision, where their field of vision gradually decreases. It can eventually lead to blindness. Narrow-angle glaucoma, which is rare, carries symptoms of sharp pain in the eyes, blurred vision, dilated pupils and even nausea or vomiting. It can cause blindness in a matter of days, and requires immediate medical attention.
Heredity seems to be a risk factor. You may also be at greater risk if you are over 45, of African descent, near-sighted or diabetic. Finally, if you have used steroids or cortizone for a long period of time, or if you have suffered an eye injury in the past, you have a greater chance of developing glaucoma.
Keratoconus is a vision disorder that occurs when the normally round cornea (front part of the eye) becomes thin and irregularly (cone) shaped. This abnormal shape prevents the light entering the eye from being focused correctly on the retina resulting in distortion of vision.
In its earliest stages keratoconus causes slight blurring of vision and increased sensitvity to glare and light, which usually appear in the late teens or late twenties. As it progresses, the cornea bulges more and vision may become more distorted. In a small number of cases the cornea will swell and cause sudden and significant decrease in vision.
Eyeglasses or soft contact lenses may be used to correct the mild nearsightedness and astigmatism that is caused by the early stages of keratoconus. As the disorder progresses and the cornea continues to thin and change shape, rigid gas permeable lenses can be prescribed to correct vision adequately. In some cases, a corneal transplant or a new procedure called Intacts is necessary.
Macular Degeneration is a disease that affects a small area of the retina known as the macula. The macula is a specialized spot on the retina that allows us to see fine detail of whatever is directly in front of us. Macular degeneration occurs when the macula begins to deteriorate.
Wet vs. Dry
Most often, macular degeneration is accompanied by the formation of yellow deposits called drusen under the macula, which dry out or thin the macula. This is called dry macular degeneration. In wet macular degeneration,
A number of uncontrollable factors contribute to macula degeneration, including age, sex, eye color, farsightedness and race. Risk factors you can control include smoking, high blood pressure, exposure to harmful sunlight and diet.
It is difficult to detect dry macular degneration in early stages. The most common symptoms, when detected, include a spot of blurry vision, dark vision or distorted vision. Wet macular degneration acts much faster when it occurs. Both forms of macular degeneration can cause blindness.
Currently, there is no cure for macular degeneration but treatment is available to slow the effects.
The most obvious symptom of red eye is redness of the eye. This can be caused by many things including conjunctivitis, dry eyes, corneal abrasion or possibly a foreign object in the eye. If red eye is accompanied by pain and/or decrease of vision consult your eye doctor.
Many things can cause red eye including foreign objects, a sudden change in eye pressure caused by sneezing/coughing, high blood pressure or eye trauma. However, red eye can appear without warning or trauma.
The part of the eye that collects light and transmits the light messages to the optic nerve and brain is the retina. It lines the inner back wall of the eye. When the retina separates from the back wall, it is known as retinal detachment. It is a serious condition that can cause permanent damage and vision loss if not treated quickly.
A retinal detachment will result in a sudden defect in your vision. It may just cause a blind spot too small to notice, or it may cause a noticeable shadow that obscures your vision. An increase in floaters, which look like small particles or fine threads, may also be noticed. Flashes of light are also associated with retinal detachment.
Eye injuries, tumors and cataract surgery can cause retinal detachment. Near-sighted individuals and the elderly are at greater risk for spontaneous detachment. Also, diabetic retinopathy, a condition associated with diabetes, can cause bleeding that could lead to retinal detachment.